What’s the Plural of Ox: Oxen or Oxes Explained

  • The proper plural form of “ox” is “oxen,” an irregular plural form tracing back to Old English.
  • The word “ox” is singular, and despite common misconceptions, “oxes” is not a correct term.
  • Oxen” is an example of how historical grammar rules can persist in modern English, reflecting the language’s richness and complexity.

Navigating the idiosyncrasies of English grammar can often feel like a journey through a linguistic labyrinth, but some rules are straightforward once learned. One such rule pertains to the pluralization of the word “ox.” Unlike more straightforward nouns that simply add an “s” or “es” to form their plurals, “ox” follows an irregular pattern. The correct plural form of “ox” is “oxen,” a vestige of Old English grammar that has survived into modern usage.

What’s the Plural of “Ox”?

The correct plural form of “ox” is “oxen”, not “ox” or “oxes.” This forms part of a subset of English nouns that follow an old Germanic pattern of pluralization.


“Ox” belongs to a category of nouns that form their plurals in an atypical way. This is why “oxen” stands as the proper usage.

  • Regular Rule Example: Cat – Cats
  • Irregular Rule Example: Ox – Oxen

It can be helpful to note that while “oxes” might appear to be a standard plural form, it is historically and linguistically incorrect.

  • Incorrect Form: Oxes
  • Correct Form: Oxen

What’s the Singular of “Ox”?

The word “ox”, representing a domesticated bovine animal, adheres to this irregular pattern.

Singular Form:

  • The singular form is simply: “ox”

In usage, the singular form appears in sentences such as:

  • “An ox pulls the plough effectively.”
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Examples of Singular Usage:

Here, we list sentences demonstrating the singular usage of “ox”:

Sentence StructureExample
Subject + (is/has) + singular nounThe ox is strong.
Singular noun + singular verb + predicateAn ox plows the field.
Indefinite article + singular noun + predicateAn ox provides much utility on a farm.

Correct Singular Usage:

  • In a statement: “The farmer bought an ox.”
  • During a description: “That ox has been well-trained.”
  • Addressing ownership: “Her ox won a prize at the fair.”

Defining “Ox”: Are Ox the Same as Bison or Buffalo?

Oxen are domesticated bovines typically used as draft animals. Despite physical similarities, oxen are distinct from bison and buffalo in several key aspects outlined in the tables below:

Oxen CharacteristicsBison CharacteristicsBuffalo Characteristics
Typically castrated male cattleWild, undomesticated animalsCan refer to different species, such as African and Asian buffalo
Used for labor and have a docile temperamentKnown for their distinctive hump and shaggy maneKnown for their large horns and water or swamp-dwelling habits
Belong to the species Bos taurusNorth American species known as Bison bisonAfrican buffalo known as Syncerus caffer, Asian as Bubalus bubalis

Let’s look at specific physical and taxonomical differences:

  • Size and Build: Oxen are large, muscular animals bred for their strength. Bison, on the other hand, are typically heavier and have a more robust structure with a pronounced hump.
  • Horns: An ox’s horns curve outward and up, while bison have shorter, sharper horns that point upward.
  • Domestication: Oxen are domesticated animals; bison are wild and less amenable to typical farm-based uses.
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Regular and Irregular Plural Nouns

Regular Plural Forms:


Irregular Plural Forms:


To proficiently master pluralization in English, learners should:

  • Recognize common patterns in regular plurals.
  • Memorize irregular plural forms due to their lack of consistent rules.
  • Practically apply these rules and forms in spoken and written English to reinforce understanding.

Oxen, Plural, Used in Sentences

Here are some examples that illustrate the correct usage of “oxen” in sentences:

  • The farmer relied on a team of oxen to plow his fields efficiently.
  • Historically, oxen were common beasts of burden, valued for their strength and endurance.

To help clarify further, consider the following tables for singular and plural use:

the oxoxen
an oxoxen

It is also beneficial to understand the context in which the term “oxen” may appear:

ContextExample Sentence
Agricultural use“The pair of oxen carried the heavy load across the farm.”
Historical reference“Oxen have been crucial to human agriculture for thousands of years.”
Expression of multiple individuals“The herd consisted of thirty oxen, all well-suited to the hardy terrain.”

Let’s consider the usage in list form:

  • Oxen carry heavy loads.
  • Oxen are a historical resource.
  • Oxen work in teams.

“Ox” Used in Sentences

To help understand the usage, here are sentences with “ox” in its singular and plural forms:

An ox is a strong animal, often used for pulling plows in fields.Oxen are often used in teams to perform heavy labor on farms.
  • Singular example: “The farmer bought an ox to help with the work.”
  • Plural example: “The yoke was designed to fit over the necks of two oxen.”
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In literature and historical texts, the distinction between singular and plural is made clear:

“Ox” in Literature“Oxen” in Historical Texts
The story described the journey of a lone ox, separated from his herd.Accounts from the pioneer days frequently refer to oxen pulling wagons along the Oregon Trail.

Words can be emphasized to understand their form and function:

  • Singular importance: The strength of the ox is legendary, symbolizing endurance and determination.
  • Plural usage: Farmers often rely on several oxen to manage their tasks effectively.

Terms for Male and Female Ox

Male Oxen:

Age GroupTermDescription
JuvenileCalfA young bovine, regardless of sex.
Adult (intact)BullA mature male that has not been castrated.
Adult (castrated)Ox or SteerA castrated male, referred to as an ox when trained for work.

Note: Only castrated males are trained for labor and referred to as oxen.

Female Oxen:

Age GroupTermDescription
JuvenileCalf or HeiferA young female bovine, heifer indicating she hasn’t had a calf.
AdultCowAn adult female that has had a calf.
  • Bovines are domesticated primarily for agricultural purposes. Cows are typically kept for milk production, and bulls are often kept for breeding. The term ‘steer’ specifically refers to a castrated male bovine often raised for beef.

What Do You Call a Group of Oxen?

In an agricultural context:

  • A team of oxen: Generally used when referring to oxen that are working together, typically in pairs, for tasks like plowing.
  • A yoke of oxen: Similar to a team, but specifically refers to two oxen that are connected by a yoke.

In a general context:

  • A herd of oxen: The most common term used to refer to a group of oxen, especially when they are not harnessed for work.

Here is a summary of the terms used:

ContextCollective Term
AgriculturalTeam of oxen
Agricultural (Pair)Yoke of oxen
GeneralHerd of oxen

Origin of the Word “Ox”

The term ox originates from the Old English word oxa. In English, the derivation of words draws heavily from various linguistic traditions. The word “ox” is no different, having a rich historical background.

Old EnglishMiddle English
(singular)(plural: oxen)

Old English belongs to the West Germanic language group, which significantly influenced Modern English vocabulary and grammar. Words in Old English had different rules for plurals, many of which do not survive in today’s usage. However, “oxen” is one of the few exceptions.

  • “Oxen” is the correct plural form.
  • It retains the Old English plural ending “-en”.

Boldly standing out in the lexicon, “oxen” is a rare word that maintains its distinct pluralization, a linguistic artifact from an era where English was quite different from its current form.

Plural RuleExample Words
Standard “-s” or “-es” endingdogs, boxes
Old English “-en” endingoxen


  1. The Elk House
  2. Wikipedia on oxen.
  3. New World Encyclopedia: oxen.

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