What’s the Plural of Buffalo: Understanding English Nouns and Irregular Plurals

  • Buffalo” can be pluralized as “buffaloes” or “buffalos,” with both forms being correct.
  • The choice between “buffaloes” and “buffalos” can depend on regional usage and sentence flow.
  • Contextual use in sentences helps determine the most appropriate plural form of “buffalo.”

In written and spoken English, context plays a crucial role in determining the choice between “buffaloes” and “buffalos.” This choice can hinge on regional preferences or the flow of the sentence. Therefore, when using the word in a sentence, it’s essential to consider how it sounds in conjunction with other words to ensure clarity and readability. The singular form “buffalo” is straightforward, but the plural can be a challenge, especially for non-native speakers or young learners grappling with the nuances of English pluralization.

What’s the Plural of “Buffalo”?

The term “buffalo” can end in either “s” or “es” when pluralized. In most cases, both “buffalos” and “buffaloes” are accepted, though “buffalos” can be less commonly used.

Usage in Sentences:

  • Singular: One buffalo roamed the plain.
  • Plural: Several buffaloes (or buffalos) roamed the plains.

The confusion often arises because English nouns ending in “o” have no consistent rule for forming plurals. Here is a breakdown of both standard and exception cases for pluralizing nouns ending in “o”:

Regular Plurals:

  • “Kangaroo” becomes kangaroos.
  • “Video” becomes videos.


  • “Tornado” becomes tornadoes.
  • “Potato” becomes potatoes.
Singular NounRegular PluralException Plural
Tornado tornadoes
Potato potatoes

When it comes to “buffalo,” it’s important to mention that beyond grammar, the word can also denote different species, which adds to the complexity of usage.

BuffaloBuffaloes or Buffalos

Singular Form of Buffalo

It is essential to understand that its singular form is simply buffalo. The term refers to a large animal known for its presence in North America, but it also pertains to other species found in different parts of the world, such as the African and Asian buffalo.

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Varieties of Buffalo

Often, there is a mix-up between the American buffalo, which is also called the bison, and the true buffalo species found in Asia and Africa. To clarify, here are the differences:

American Buffalo (Bison)True Buffalo
Native to North AmericaNative to Asia and Africa
Scientific name Bison bisonIncludes species like Syncerus caffer (Cape buffalo) and Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo)

Usage in Language

In English, the word “buffalo” functions as both a singular and plural noun. However, the usage can depend on geographical variations and the context in which it is used:

  • Singular Use:
    • A lone buffalo roams the prairie.
  • Plural Use as Singular Form:
    • A herd of buffalo grazes in the field.

Buffalos vs. Bison and Oxen

Buffalos refer to the large wild oxen of the family Bovidae and are indigenous to Africa and Asia with species like the Cape buffalo and water buffalo. The term “buffalo” can indeed refer to both the singular and plural form, although “buffaloes” is also an accepted plural variant.

On the other hand, bison are native to North America and Europe and are a different genus within the same family. They tend to be larger in size and distinct in physical features from buffalos.

Oxen are typically domesticated bovines trained as draft animals. Unlike buffalos and bison, oxen are not a species but rather a role that domestic cattle can fulfill.

A comparison of these animals can help delineate their unique characteristics:

CharacteristicBuffalo (spec. Water Buffalo)Bison (spec. American Bison)
HabitatAfrica, AsiaNorth America, Europe
SizeUp to around 1,800 poundsUp to 2,000 pounds
DomesticationCommonly domesticatedRarely domesticated
HabitatGlobal (domesticated)
DomesticationAlways domesticated

In summary:

  • Buffalos and bison can be referred to in both singular and plural forms by the same word or by adding an “es” to create the plural.
  • Both of these animals should not be confused with oxen, which are domesticated and serve a specific role.
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It is important for the distinction between these animals to be recognized:

  • Buffalo: singular and plural (or buffaloes)
  • Bison: singular and plural
  • Oxen: always plural (singular is ox)

Nouns Ending in “-o”

Rule Overview

Most of the time, nouns ending in “-o” add “-s” to form the plural:

  • Solo → Solos
  • Photo → Photos

However, there is a set of nouns that require the addition of “-es”:

  • Echo → Echoes
  • Potato → Potatoes
  • Tomato → Tomatoes

Unique Exceptions

Some nouns can accept both forms in the plural, with one often being more common than the other:

  • Buffalo → Buffalos or Buffaloes
  • Mango → Mangos or Mangoes

Regular “-o” Plural Nouns


In these instances, -s is simply appended to the end.

Irregular “-o” Plural Nouns


While not as common, certain words like “cactus” and “fungus” adopt a Latin style of pluralization.

  • Add “-s” to most nouns ending in “-o” for the plural form.
  • Use “-es” for a select group of nouns like echoes and potatoes.
  • Some nouns can be pluralized with either “-s” or “-es,” with usage dictating the more common form.
  • A few nouns adopt Latin or irregular plural forms.

Sentence Examples with “Buffalo”


  • A herd of buffaloes grazed serenely on the plain.
  • The documentary focused on African buffaloes and their habitat.


  • The Native American tribes relied on buffalos for sustenance.
  • Buffalos are icons of the American West, symbolizing strength and freedom.

Here are two tables to clearly present sentence examples featuring the plural forms of “buffalo”:

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Sentence Example with “Buffaloes”Sentence Example with “Buffalos”
Sightings of wild buffaloes in the park have increased this year.Several buffalos were spotted near the riverbank.
The farmer reported that the buffaloes had moved to the southern field.The tour guide mentioned that buffalos can be quite temperamental.
  • The Buffalo museum is known for its extensive art collection.
  • When visiting Niagara Falls, many tourists stay in Buffalo for its accommodations.

By presenting these examples, it becomes evident how versatile and unique the word “Buffalo” is within the English language. Its application stretches from the plains where the animals roam to the city streets named in their honor.

Examples of Buffaloes in Sentences

In English language, understanding the plural form of words is crucial in sentence construction. The word “buffalo” can be pluralized as “buffaloes” or “buffalo.” The context often dictates which plural form is more appropriate. Here, we will focus on using “buffaloes” in sentences.

Singular Use:

  • The farmer mentioned that the buffalo is roaming alone in the field.

Plural Use:

  • During the safari, we observed a herd of buffaloes near the waterhole.

When it comes to complex sentences, the word “buffaloes” integrates smoothly, as seen below:

Table 1: Buffaloes in Simple Sentences

A buffalo grazes in peace.Buffaloes graze in peace.
The buffalo has powerful horns.Buffaloes have powerful horns.

In literature and folklore, the plural form “buffaloes” is also used to add character to the narratives:

Table 2: Buffaloes in Literature

The buffalo stands as a symbol of strength.The buffaloes stand as symbols of strength.
In the tale, a magical buffalo leads the way.In the tale, magical buffaloes lead the way.

To further illustrate the use of “buffaloes” in various sentence structures, consider the following examples:

  • The strength of the buffaloes amazed the audience.
  • Children are delighted to learn about buffaloes in their biology class.
  • Documentaries often highlight how buffaloes interact with their environment.


  1. Definition of buffalo.
  2. Bovidae family, Wikipedia.
  3. “It’s bison, not buffalo”, Smithsonian’s National Zoo.
  4. The origin of potatoes.

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